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san marino

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The definition of expression "san marino":
rate 1. smallest republic in the world, Republic of San Marino (located in southern Europe and completely surrounded by Italy); capital and only city of San Marino; name of several cities in Italy; ; city in California (USA)
rate 2. officially Republic of San Marino; Country, central Italian peninsula, southern Europe. It is located near the Adriatic Sea and is surrounded by Italy. Area: 24 sq mi (62 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 27,700. Capital: San Marino. Most of the people are Italian. Language: Italian (official). Religion: Roman Catholicism. Currency: Italian lira. The territory has an irregular rectangular form with a maximum length of 8 mi (13 km). It is crossed by streams that flow into the Adriatic Sea. It is dominated by Mount Titano, 2,424 ft (739 m) high, on which the capital, the town of San Marino, is located, surrounded by triple walls. The economy is based on private enterprise and includes tourism, commerce, agriculture, crafts and fine printing, particularly of postage stamps. San Marino is a republic with one legislative house; its heads of state and government are two captains-regent. According to tradition, it was founded in the early 4th century AD by St. Marinus. By the 12th century it had developed into a commune and remained independent despite challenges from neighbouring rulers, including the Malatesta family in nearby Rimini. San Marino survived the Renaissance as a relic of the self-governing Italian city-state and remained an independent republic after the unification of Italy in 1861–70. It is one of the smallest republics in the world and may be the oldest one in Europe. At the beginning of the 21st century its citizens enjoyed a high standard of living.
rate 3. City (population in 2000: 12,945), southwestern California, United States It is east of Los Angeles and south of Pasadena. In 1903 railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington (1850–1927) purchased the San Marino Ranch and founded the community, which was incorporated in 1913. His estate, deeded to the public, includes the Huntington Library (with rare English and American books and manuscripts), Art Gallery (where Thomas Gainsborough's Blue Boy is displayed) and Botanical Gardens.
rate 4. officially Republic of San Marino, Italian Republicca di San Marino small republic situated on the slopes of Mount Titano, on the Adriatic side of central Italy between the Romagna and the Marche regions and surrounded on all sides by the Republic of Italy. The republic's area of 23.5 square miles (61 square km) makes it the smallest independent state in Europe after Vatican City and Monaco and, until the independence of Nauru (1968), the smallest republic in the world. The territory has an irregular rectangular form with a maximum length of 8 miles (13 km), northeast to southwest. It is crossed by the Marano and Ausa (Aussa) streams, which flow into the Adriatic Sea and by the stream of San Marino, which falls into the Marecchia River. The landscape is dominated by the huge, central limestone mass of Mount Titano (2, 424 feet); hills spread out from it on the southwest, whereas the northeastern part gently slopes down toward the Romagna plain and the Adriatic coast. The silhouette of Mount Titano, with its three summits crowned by ancient triple fortifications, may be seen from many miles away. The climate is mild and temperate, with maximum temperatures of 79 F (26 C) in summer and 19 F -7 C) in winter. Annual rainfall ranges between about 22 inches (560 mm) and 32 inches (800 mm). Vegetation is typical of the Mediterranean zone, with variations due to elevation and includes olive, pine, oak, ash, poplar, fir and elm and many kinds of grasses and flowers. Besides domestic and farmyard animals, moles, hedgehogs, foxes, badgers, martens, weasels and hares are found. Indigenous birds and birds of passage are plentiful. The Republic of San Marino traces its origin to the early 4th century AD when, according to tradition, St. Marinus and a group of Christians settled there to escape persecution. By the 12th century San Marino had developed into a commune ruled by its own statutes and consuls. The commune was able to remain independent despite encroachments by neighbouring bishops and lords, largely because of its isolation and its mountain fortresses. Against the attacks of the Malatesta family, who ruled the nearby seaport of Rimini, San Marino enjoyed the protection of the rival family of Montefeltro, who ruled Urbino. By the middle of the 15th century it was a republic ruled by a Grand Council60 men taken from the Arengo or assembly of families. Warding off serious attacks in the 16th century (including an occupation by Cesare Borgia), San Marino survived the Renaissance as a relic of the self-governing Italian city-states. Rule by an oligarchy and attempts to annex it to the Papal States in the 18th century marked the decline of the republic. When Napoleon invaded Italy he respected the independence of the republic and even offered to extend its territory (1797). The Congress of Vienna (1815), at the end of the Napoleonic Wars, also recognized its independent status. During the 19th-century movement for Italian unification, San Marino offered asylum to revolutionaries, among them Giuseppe Garibaldi. After Italy became a national state, a series of treaties (the first in 1862) confirmed San Marino's independence. The San Marino constitution, originating from the Statutes of 1600, provides for a parliamentary form of government. The Great and General Council (Parliament) has 60 members, elected every five years by all adult citizens. It has legislative and administrative powers and nominates every six months the two captains regent (capitani reggenti), who hold office for that period and may not be elected again until three years have elapsed. The Great and General Council is headed by the captains regent, who are heads of state and of the administration. The Congress of State, a council of ministers, is composed of 10 members, elected by the Great and General Council from among its members and constitutes the central organ of executive power. Each member has charge of a ministerial department. The territory has no mineral resources, for the centuries-long quarrying of Mount Titano's stone and the craft that depended upon it have become exhausted. The republic's economy, therefore, relies entirely upon its inhabitants' enterprise. Its principal resources include industry, tourism, commerce, agriculture and crafts. Manufacturing produces building materials, paints and varnishes, paper, metalwork, textiles, clothing, furniture, rubber and leather footware, ceramics, china, food and confectionery products, liqueurs, cosmetics and sanitary articles. Tourism is the sector of greatest expansion and it makes a major contribution to the inhabitants' income. Alongside traditional excursion tourism, a convention-type tourism, based on the development of modern hotel facilities and residential tourism are growing. Agriculture, although no longer the principal economic resource in San Marino, has not shown any major decrease in production: wheat, corn (maize) and barley are the chief crops; dairying and livestock also are important. Traditional craft products of San Marino include articles in ceramics and wrought iron and modern and reproduction furniture. Fine printing, particularly of postage stamps, is a useful source of revenue. Although traces of human presence from both prehistoric and Roman times exist in the territory, Mount Titano and its slopes are known to have been populated, with certainty, only after the arrival of St. Marinus and his followers. A sizable element of San Marino's population now consists of non-San Marino citizens and, in a strong majority, Italians. More than 20,000 San Marino citizens or Sammarinesi, are resident abroad, principally in Italy, the United States, France and Argentina. Almost all of San Marino's citizens are Roman Catholics. The official language is Italian. A widely spoken dialect has been defined as Celto-Gallic, akin to the Piedmont and Lombardy dialects as well as to that of Romagna. Social programs for the citizens of San Marino are extensive. The state finds employment for those who cannot find work with private concerns. Against a social security contribution, all citizens receive free, comprehensive medical care and assistance in sickness, accident and old age, as well as family allowances. The state aids home ownership through its buildings schemes. Education is free up to 14 years of age. For higher level schooling, the state grants aid to students attending universities and institutions outside San Marino. The capital, San Marino, is set high on the western side of Mount Titano, beneath the fortress crowning one of its summits and is encircled by triple walls. Borgo Maggiore, farther down the slope, was for centuries San Marino's commercial centre and Serravalle, beneath its castle of the Malatesta family, is agricultural and industrial. Most of San Marino's landscape is agricultural in character, but industrial concerns have intruded on the centuries-old forms of agricultural life. A network of roads connects San Marino with the surrounding regions of Italy. Motorcoach services connect San Marino city with Rimini and, in summer, directly with the Adriatic coast. The capital is reached from Borgo Maggiore by means of a cable railway. Population (1988): 22, 304. residential city, Los Angeles county, southern California, United States, southeast of Pasadena. In 1903 Henry Edwards Huntington purchased the San Marino Ranch and founded the community. His estate, deeded to the public, includes the Huntington Library (with rare English and American literary and historical collections including a Gutenberg Bible), Art Collections (where Gainsborough's Blue Boy and Sir Thomas Lawrence's Pinkie are displayed) and Botanical Garden (with specimens of unusual flora). El Molino Viejo (1812), a grist mill and San Marino's oldest building, is preserved. Inc. 1913. Population (1990) 12, 959.
rate 5. San Marino Official name: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino (Most Serene Republic of San Marino). Form of government: unitary multiparty republic with one legislative house (Great and General Council). Head of state and government: Captains-Regent (2). Capital: San Marino. Official language: Italian. Official religion: none. Monetary unit: 1 Italian lira (Lit; plural lire) = 100 centesimi; valuation (Sept. 25, 1998) 1 United States$ = Lit 1, 652; 1 = Lit 2, 813. Demography Population (1998): 26, 100. Density (1998): persons per sq mi 1, 104.5, persons per sq km 426.5. Urban-rural (1997): urban 89.3%; rural 10.7%. Sex distribution (1997): male 48.70%; female 51.30%. Age breakdown (1997): under 15, 14.9%; 15-29, 20.9%; 30-44, 25.0%; 45-59, 18.8%; 60-74, 14.0%; 75 and over, 6.4%. Population projection: (2000) 26, 900; (2010) 31, 600. Doubling time: not applicable; natural population growth is negligible. Ethnic composition (1997): Sammarinesi 83.1%; Italian 12.0%; other 4.8%. Religious affiliation (1995): Roman Catholic 89.2%; Jehovah's Witness 1.2%; other 9.6%. Major cities (1997): Serravalle/Dogano 4, 802; Borgo Maggiore 2, 394; San Marino 2, 294; Murata 1,549; Domagnano 1,048. Vital statistics Birth rate per 1,000 population (1992-96): 10.5 (world avg. 25.0); (1985) legitimate 95.2%; illegitimate 4.8%. Death rate per 1,000 population (1992-96): 7.1 (world avg. 9.3). Natural increase rate per 1,000 population (1992-96): 3.4 (world avg. 15.7). Total fertility rate (avg. births per childbearing woman; 1996): 1.2. Marriage rate per 1,000 population (1992-96): 8.1. Divorce rate per 1,000 population (1991-95): 1.0. Life expectancy at birth (1995): male 77.2 years; female 85.3 years. Major causes of death per 100,000 population (1991-95): disease of the circulatory system 324.8; malignant neoplasms (cancers) 229.4; accidents, violence and suicide 45.2; diseases of the respiratory system 10.7. National economy Budget (1995). Revenue: Lit 374, 900,000,000 (indirect taxes 44.9%; direct taxes 28.9%; social security 17.8%). Expenditures: Lit 377, 300,000,000 (current expenditures 46.8%, of which social security 39.9%, wages and salaries 30.8%; capital expenditures 6.7%; other 46.5%). Public debt: n.a. Tourism: number of tourist arrivals (1996) 3, 345, 381; receipts from visitors (1994) United States$252,500,000; expenditures by nationals abroad, n.a. Population economically active (1996): total 16,073; activity rate of total population 63.5% (participation rates: ages 15-64, 88.4%; female 40.2%; unemployed 3.1%). Household income and expenditure. Total number of households (1997) 10,093; average household size 2.5; income per household: n.a.; sources of income: n.a.; expenditure (1991): food, beverages and tobacco 22.1%, housing, fuel and electrical energy 20.9%, transportation and communications 17.6%, clothing and footwear 8.0%, furniture, appliances and goods and services for the home 7.2%, education 7.1%, health and sanitary services 2.6%, other goods and services 14.5%. Production (metric tons except as noted). Agriculture, forestry, fishing: wheat c. 4, 400, grapes c. 700, barley c. 500; livestock (number of live animals; 1995) 954 cattle, 694 pigs. Manufacturing (1995): processed meats 366, 177 kg, of which beef 273,515 kg, pork 85, 688 kg, veal 6, 902 kg; cheese 78, 803 kg; butter 13, 739 kg; milk 1,097, 890 litres; yogurt 5, 722 litres; other major products include electrical appliances, musical instruments, printing ink, paint, cosmetics, furniture, floor tiles, gold and silver jewelry, clothing and postage stamps. Construction (new units completed; 1995): residential 145; nonresidential 123. Energy production (consumption): all electrical power is imported via electrical grid from Italy (consumption, n.a.); coal, none (n.a.); crude petroleum, none (n.a.); petroleum products, none (n.a.); natural gas, none (n.a.). Gross national product (at current market prices; 1994): United States$408,000,000 (U.S.$16, 900 per capita). Land use (1985): agricultural and under permanent cultivation 74%; meadows and pastures 22%; forested, built-on, wasteland and other 4%. Foreign trade Balance of trade: n.a. San Marino and Italy form a single customs area; separate figures for San Marino are not available. Imports (1995): manufactured goods of all kinds, oil and gold. Major import source: Italy. Exports (1995): wine, wheat, woolen goods, furniture, wood, ceramics, building stone, dairy products, meat and postage stamps. Major export destination: Italy. Transport Transport. Railroads: none (nearest rail terminal is at Rimini, Italy, 17 mi northeast). Roads (1987): total length 147 mi, 237 km. Vehicles (1996): passenger cars 23,561; trucks and buses 4,013. Merchant marine: vessels (100 gross tons and over) none. Air transport: airports with scheduled flights, none; there is, however, a heliport that provides passenger and cargo service between San Marino and Rimini, Italy, during the summer months. Education and health Educational attainment (1997). Percentage of population age 14 and over having: basic Literacy or primary education 35.6%; secondary 30.7%; some postsecondary 27.9%; higher degree 5.8%. Literacy (1997): total population age 15 and over literate 21, 885 (99.1%); males literate 10,546 (99.4%); females literate 11, 339 (98.8%). Health (1987): physicians 60 (1 per 375 persons); hospital beds 149 (1 per 151 persons); infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births (1990-94) 7.1. Food (1995): daily per capita caloric intake 3, 458 (vegetable products 74%, animal products 26%); 137% of FAO recommended minimum requirement. Military Total active duty personnel (1995): none. Military expenditure as percentage of national budget (1992): 1.0% (world 3.6%); per capita expenditure (1987) United States$155. January 1. Weighting coefficients for component expenditures are those of the 1991 official Italian consumer price index for the North-Central region of Italy. Early 1980s. Includes 0.9 percent illiterate population. Figures are for Italy. Defense is provided by a public security force of about 50; all fit males ages 16-55 constitute a militia.
rate 6. Captain Regent (Co-Head of State) - Federico Pedini AMATI
rate 7. Captain Regent (Co-Head of State) - Rosa ZAFFERANI
rate 8. Sec. of Budget & Finance - Stefano MACINA
rate 9. Sec. of Health & Social Security - Fabio BERARDI
rate 10. Sec. of Industry, Trade, & Research - Tito MASI
rate 11. Sec. of Interior & Civil Protection - Valeria CIAVATTA
rate 12. Sec. of Justice, Information, & Peace - Ivan FOSCHI
rate 13. Sec. of Labor - Antonello BACCIOCCHI
rate 14. Sec. of Public Education, Culture, & Social Affairs - Francesca MICHELOTTI
rate 15. Sec. of State for Foreign & Political Affairs & for Economic Planning - Fiorenzo STOLFI
rate 16. Sec. of Territory, Environment, & Agriculture - Marino RICCARDI
rate 17. Sec. of Tourism, Telecommunications, Transportation, Economic Cooperation, & Sports - Paride ANDREOLI
rate 18. Permanent Representative to the UN, New York - Daniele BODINI
rate 19. Chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Federico Pedini AMATI and Captain Regent Rosa ZAFFERANI (for the period 1 April-30 September 2008)
rate 20. Head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo STOLFI (since 27 July 2006)
rate 21. Cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
rate 22. Elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2007 (next to be held in March 2008); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 27 July 2006 (next to be held by 2011)
rate 23. Election results: Mirko TOMASSONI and Alberto SELVA elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Fiorenzo STOLFI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
rate 24. note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
rate 25. SM (Internet)
rate 26. SM (ISO 3166)
rate 27. SMR (ISO 3166)
rate 28. SM (FIPS 10-4)
rate 29. 39549
rate 30. Currency: euro (EUR)
rate 31. Area Code Country Code -378
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